Useful Links

Air & Waste Management Assoc.

Aluminum Assoc.

American Forest & Paper Assoc.

American Iron & Steel Institute

American Plastics Council

Asphalt Institute

National Asphalt Paving Association

U.S. Composting Council

Container Recycling Institute

Glass Packaging Institute

Institute of Gas Technology

National Association for
Plastic Container Recovery

Pellet Fuels Institute

Polystyrene Packaging Council



Regional Biomass Energy Program

Scrap Tire Management Council

Steel Recycling Institute

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Solid Waste

Water Industry Council

Trade Associations

Environmental Industries
Association (EIA)

National Recycling Coalition (NRC)

Solid Waste Association of
North America (SWANA)

Waste Equipment Technology Association (WASTEC)

General Web
Recycling Directories

Global Recycling Network

Environmental Sites on the Internet

The Environmental Magazine



Items Found on This Page:

Table: Post-Consumer Material Densities

20 Principles for Designing a
Material Handling System

Handy Internet Links








     Commingled Cans, Glass
     and Plastic Containers
     140 - 300 lb/cu. yd
     5.2 - 11.1 lb/cu. ft.


     Whole Bottles
          Green and Amber
     Crushed Glass
          1.5" Mechanically Crushed
          3/8" Furnace Ready
     Unit Weights
     Average 16-oz Bottle (Unbroken)
     Ave. Municipal Bottle (Unbroken)

     0 to 10% Broken
     500 lb/cu. yd
     550 lb/cu. yd

     1000 lb/cu. yd
     1800 lb/cu. yd
     2700 lb/cu. yd

     0.41 lb/bottle
     0.55 lb/bottle


     Whole (Unflattened)
     Unit Weight
     Weight of One Can

     45 lb/cu. yd
     200 lb/cu. yd

     0.032 lb/can
     31.5 cans/lb


     PET, Whole
     HDPE (Natural), Whole
     HDPE (Colored), Whole
     Mix of Plastic Containers, Whole
     Unit Weights, Bottles
     PET, Two Liter
     HDPE (Natural), One Gallon
     HDPE (Colored), Half Gallon
     HDPE (Colored), One Gallon
     Plastic Bag, Grocery Bag

     34 lb/cu. yd; 220 bottles/cu. yd
     30 lb/cu. yd; 180 bottles/cu. yd
     45 lb/cu. yd; 171 bottles/cu. yd
     38 lb/cu. yd; 110 bottles/cu. yd

     0.15 lb/bottle; 6.5 bottles/lb
     0.17 lb/bottle; 6.0 bottles/lb
     0.27 lb/bottle; 3.8 bottles/lb
     0.35 lb/bottle; 2.9 bottles/lb
     0.0465 lb/plastic bag


     Whole, Unflattened
     Unit Weights,
     Average Weight of Various Can
     (10 oz, 12 oz, 16 oz and 32 oz)

     150 lb/cu. yd

      0.20 - 0.23 lb/can
      5.0 - 4.3 cans/lb


     Densities -- Loose and Unbaled
     Mixed Office Waste Paper
     Drink Boxes and Milk Cartons
     Unit Weights,
     Brown Bag

     350 lbs/cu. yd
     150 lbs/cu. yd
     160 lbs/cu. yd
     250 lbs/cu. yd
     40 lb/cu. yd

     0.177 lb/bag

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Orientation Principle
Study the system relationships thoroughly prior to preliminary planning in order to identify existing methods and problems, and physical and economic constraints, and to establish future requirements and goals.
Flexibility Principle
Use methods and equipment which can perform a variety of tasks under a variety of operating conditions.
Planning Principle
Establish a plan to include basic requirements, desirable options, and the consideration of contingencies for all material handling and storage activities.
Simplification Principle
Simplify handling by eliminating, reducing, or combining unnecessary movements and/or equipment.
Systems Principle
Integrate those handling and storage which are economically viable into a coordinated system of operation including receiving, storage, production, assembly, packaging, warehousing, shipping, and transportation.
Gravity Principle
Utilize gravity to move material wherever possible, while respecting limitations concerning safety, product damage, and loss.
Unit Load Principle
Handling product in as large a unit load as practical.
Safety Principle
Provide safe material handling equipment and methods which follow existing safety codes and regulations in addition to accrued experience.
Space Utilization Principle
Make effective utilization of all cubic space.
Computerization Principle
Consider computerization in material handling and storage systems when circumstances warrant for improved material and information control.
Standardization Principle
Standardize handling methods and equipment wherever possible.
Layout Principle
Prepare an operational sequence and equipment layout for all viable systems solutions, then select the alternative system which best integrates efficiency and effectiveness.
Ergonomic Principle
Recognize human capabilities and limitations by designing material handling equipment and procedures for effective interaction with the people using the system.
Cost Principle
Compare the economic justification of alternative solutions in equipment and methods on the basis of economic effectiveness as measured by expense per unit handled.
Energy Principle
Include energy consumption of the material handling systems and material handling procedures when making comparisons or preparing economic justifications.
Maintenance Principle
Prepare a plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repairs on all material handling equipment.
Environmental Principle
Minimize adverse effects on the environment when selecting material handling equipment and procedures.
Reliability Principle
Provide reliable and dependable material handling equipment from manufacturers who have demonstrated quality and longevity in the industry.
Mechanization Principle
Mechanize the handling process where feasible to increase efficiency and economy in the handling of materials.
Accessibility Principle
Readily have access to the knowledge, expertise, professionalism, and industry leadership provided by the RRT Design & Construction team.

RRT is your
ONE-STOP Resource for Innovative, Successful Processing System Solutions
for the Solid Waste, Paper and Recycling Industries.

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